Archaeological expedition explores heritage of the Golden Horde nomads
Kazakh scientists were looking forward to the easing of quarantine. They began research works again, creating an archaeological expedition dedicated to the Golden Horde to excavate a historical site “Kyzyl oba”. The researchers hope to find many unique artifacts, which will serve as clear evidence of not just a high level of the development of steppe civilization, but also degree of its influence.
“This year we have to explore at least one of the mausoleums. As it turned out earlier, they remained untouched. Therefore, we expect that there should be some pretty good finds. Although people were already Muslims, they buried people in accordance with the old customs. Everything that a person owned in life was piled into his or her grave, including weapons and jewelry,” said Anatoly Pleshakov, a member of the research group, Associate Professor of History of Kazakhstan and Social and Humanitarian Disciplines at Manash Kozybayev North Kazakhstan State University.
Sensational findings were made last year. These are the ruins of seven mausoleums, the remains of workshops and kilns, where brick and architectural decor as well as gold jewelry were made. The scientists said that the rulers from the dynasty of Zhoshy Khan were buried in the tomb of the medieval mausoleum.
“The mausoleums are quite large, so that a lot of burnt bricks of very good quality were found. The burnt brick was also used in the construction of the Golden Horde. Now we need to study brick firing technology,” said scientist.
Researchers assumed that they will be able to study here how historical eras were layered. Anatoly Pleshakov emphasized that during exploration, in addition to monuments of religious architecture, it was possible to identify numerous traces of ancient irrigation: dams, irrigation ditches and even fragments of ceramic vessels from lifting mechanisms that delivered water to a settlement. All this indicates the location of previously unknown cultural, political and sacred center of the nomads who inhabited Northern Kazakhstan.
“This proves that the population of Kazakhstan was not only nomadic, but also sedentary. A developed urban culture was present. This is evidenced by other ancient settlements, such as Bozok. Incidentally, the opinion of Western scientists about the nomadic people that they moved from south to north is not true. Each tribal union had its own territory. Moreover, there is no reason to cover a distance of 2,000 kilometers on horseback. They moved within their territory, ” the scientist said.
He is confident that such unique monuments in the territory of Northern Kazakhstan have not been found yet. Discovered artifacts indicate the Golden Horde era of 14th to 15th centuries. The necropolis was discovered by the archaeological expedition of the Kozybayev University together with the “Margulan centre” of Pavlodar State Pedagogical University. The ruins were found in the Ualikhanov district of North Kazakhstan region in the lower reaches of the Selety River. The researchers said that now they will explore many findings over the 45 days of the expedition.