The Republic of Kazakhstan is a unitary state with a presidential form of government. Kazakhstan has gained independence on 16 December 1991. The capital of the country is Astana. The head of state is Nazarbayev Nursultan Abishevich.
According to the constitution, Kazakhstan is the state which has three independent branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial.
The current Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted by national referendum on August 30, 1995. Kazakhstan is a democratic, secular, legal and social state whose highest values are person, his life, rights and freedoms.
The only source of state power is the people.
Legislative power is performed by Parliament; the executive power is exercised by the Government, which consists of the central government (Ministries, Departments and Agencies) and local (region authorities), judicial power is conducted by state courts (Supreme Court and local courts).
The basic principles of the state work are public solidarity and political stability, economic development for the benefit of nation, patriotism, the solution of the state life important issues by the democratic methods including voting at the state referendum or in the Parliament.
Symbols of state
The National Flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a rectangular blue flag with the image of the sun with 32 streams of sun in the center, under which the steppe eagle is hovering. A vertical strip with a national ornament is designed in the pole. Images of the sun, streams of the sun, eagle and ornament are golden. Flag of Kazakhstan, along with the national emblem and anthem, is the official state symbol of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The current flag was adopted in 1992. The author of the flag is well known designer and artist, Honored Artist of Kazakhstan, Shaken Niyazbekov. The blue flag with a golden national ornament on the left, a golden sun and the silhouette of hovering eagle in the center are symbols of freedom, independence and sovereignty of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Monochrome background is a symbol of the unity of Kazakhstan.
State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan is represented by the image of shanyrak (upper arched part of the yurt) on a blue background, from which uyks (abutments) disperse around and above in the form of streams of the sun in the frame of the wings of mythical horses. There is "Kazakhstan" inscription at the bottom of the emblem. Two colours, blue and gold, prevail on the emblem. June 4, 1992 is the birthday of the State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Shanyrak on the emblem of the country is an image of a common home of all people living in Kazakhstan. The happiness in it depends on the well-being of everyone, as shanyrak hardness depends on the reliability of its uyks. Shanyrak resembles cupola of heaven not only by its shape, but it is one of the important elements of the Kazakhs life. Shanyrak is a symbol of the father's house, and in the absolute sense, of the world and the universe.
Current emblem of the sovereign Kazakhstan is the result of two famous architects’ creative searches: Zhandarbek Malibekov and Shot-Aman Ualikhanov. 245 projects and 67 descriptions of the future emblem took part in the final competition.
Poets: Zhumeken Nazhimedenov, Nursultan Nazarbayev
Composer: Shamshi Kaldayakov
Алтын күн аспаны,
Алтын дән даласы,
Ежелден ер деген,
Даңқымыз шықты ғой.
Қазағым мықты ғой!
Менің елім, менің елім,
Гүлің болып егілемін,
Жырың болып төгілемін, елім!
Туған жерім менің - Қазақстаным!
Ұрпаққа жол ашқан,
Кең байтақ жерім бар.
Тәуелсіз елім бар.
Қарсы алған уақытты,
Біздің ел бақытты,
Біздің ел осындай!
Менің елім, менің елім,
Гүлің болып егілемін,
Жырың болып төгілемін, елім!
Туған жерім менің - Қазақстаным!
The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the basic law of the country. The current Constitution was adopted at nationwide referendum on 30 August 1995. This day is a national holiday - the Day of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
1. The Republic of Kazakhstan is a democratic, secular, legal and social state, highest values of which are person, his life, rights and freedoms.
2. The fundamental principles of the Republic activity are public consent and political stability, economic development for the benefit of all people, Kazakhstan patriotism; solution of the most important issues of state by democratic methods including voting at the national referendum or in the Parliament.
The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the highest official and the chief of the armed forces of the country. President of the Republic is the symbol and guarantor of the unity of the people and state authorities, firmness of the Constitution, the rights and freedoms of man and citizen. The President of the Republic ensures coordinated functioning of all branches of government and the civil responsibility of the government. His powers are defined by a special section of the Constitution. The post was established on April 24, 1990. The first President of Kazakhstan is Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev. The president is elected for five years from the citizens at least 40 years old, living in the country for at least 10 years and who speaks state language fluently. The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be elected by the citizens of Kazakhstan on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
Residence of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan is "Ak Orda". It is located at the territory of Astana new administrative center on the left bank of the Ishim River. The official presentation of the Palace of the President of Kazakhstan took place on 24 December 2004.
Executive power is exercised by the Government. Head of Government is Prime Minister. He has three deputies. The Cabinet is represented by 18 ministers. Government heads the executive department system, and directs their work. Government is a collegial body and in all its activities is responsible to the President of the Republic, and in the cases provided under the Constitution - to the Majilis of the Parliament and the Parliament. The Government is formed by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan in accordance with the Constitution.
The Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which is the country's highest judicial body for civil, criminal and other cases under the jurisdiction of local and other courts, exercises in statutory procedural forms supervision of their activities and provide explanations on judicial practice performs forms of action, prescribed by the law, supervision their activities and provides explanations on judicial practice. His status is prescribed in the Constitution of Kazakhstan and Constitutional Law "On the Judicial System and Status of Judges of the Republic of Kazakhstan". Chief Justice, Board Chairmen and judges of the Supreme Court are elected by the Senate upon the recommendation of the President of the Republic. Justice in the Republic of Kazakhstan is carried out only by the court.
Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a collective body of constitutional control in Kazakhstan. It consists of seven members. Chairman and two members of the Constitutional Council are appointed by the President, two members of Senate and the Majilis respectively are elected for 6 years. President, Senate Chairman, Majilis Chairman, no less than one fifth of the total membership of the Parliament, the Prime Minister, the court (only in case of infringement on the man and citizen rights and freedoms enshrined in the constitution by regulatory legal act), have the right to appeal to the Constitutional Council.
City administration is regional agency of executive power in Kazakhstan. Mayor is the head of city administration; he represents the President and Government of the country in the region. Regional governors, mayors of cities of national status and the capital shall be appointed by the President upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan. Mayors of other administrative territorial units shall be appointed or elected to the post in the manner determined by the President of Kazakhstan. President of the Republic has the discretion to release mayors from the office.
Kazakhstan is divided according to administrative principle into 14 regions. The capital is Astana. Almaty city has the status of national importance.
Assembly of People of Kazakhstan was established in accordance with the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated March 1, 1995 as a consultative and advisory body under the President. Structure of the Assembly is formed from representatives of state bodies, ethnic, cultural and other public organizations, and other persons in accordance with their authority in society, social and political activities. Currently, the Assembly is composed of 350 members.
Assembly’s activity aims at achieving the following objectives:
- providing of interethnic and interreligious harmony, social stability;
- proposals development concerning the state policy implementation, that promotes the development of friendly relations between the representatives of ethnic groups living at the territory of Kazakhstan, the promotion of their spiritual and cultural revival and development based on the principle of equality;
- formation of citizens’ political culture, which is based on civilized and democratic norms;
- provision of the diverse national interests considering in the state's national policy;
- compromise in solution of social contradictions.
Assembly’s activity provides the Republic of Kazakhstan international prestige growth as the country which effectively solves the problems of interethnic relations. Assembly’s contribution is appreciated at the highest level. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, who paid a visit to our country, considers Kazakhstan to be an example of interethnic harmony, stability and sustainable development for other countries of the world. Pope John Paul II praised the Kazakh people.
The state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan is Kazakh. Official language is the language of government, legislation, legal proceedings and paperwork, acting in all the areas of the entire state. Russian language is officially used in state institutions and local authorities along with the Kazakh language, English is the language of business.
The Constitution since 1995 allows political parties’ work after they are registered officially.
1. The Republic of Kazakhstan recognizes ideological and political variety. The creation of political parties’ organizations is not permitted in government bodies.
2. Public associations shall be equal under the law. Illegal government interference in the affairs of public associations and public organizations in the affairs of the state, assignment of the public associations’ functions on the public associations are not allowed.
3. Formation and functioning of public associations whose goals or actions are aimed at forcible constitutional system changing, violation of the Republic integrity, security of the state subversion, incitement of social, racial, national, religious, class and family hatred, as well as the creation of unauthorized paramilitary forces are prohibited.
4. The activities of political parties and trade unions of other states, religious parties, as well as the political parties and trade unions financing by foreign legal entities and citizens, foreign states and international organizations are not allowed in the Republic.
5. The activities of foreign religious organizations at territory of the Republic, as well as the heads of religious associations’ assignment by foreign religious centers in the Republic are carried out with the approval of the competent government bodies of the Republic.