Ancient Kazakhstan is a country of not only nomads but also of big cities. This is stated in the work of a well-known archaeologist Karl Baipakov. The scientist spent many years conducting fundamental research. Almaty hosted a presentation of a three-volume monograph on urbanization from ancient times to the 19th century. Archaeologists are aware of more than 200 ancient cities located on the territory of Kazakhstan. They were large settlements with palace complexes and numerous buildings. The ancestors of today's Kazakhs lived in these settlements. The author of the monograph justifies the fact by using the unique artifacts which are found during excavations. In addition, ancient written sources like Arabic, Persian, Chinese and others confirm the existence of the ancient sites.

KARL BAIPAKOV, AUTHOR, ACADEMICIAN, KAZAKH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES:

- Archeology has gained the information which can astonish us. It turns out that the Kangyu state occupied a very important territory on the Silk Road where caravans went to the West, to the East, and to the South. Now we know that our ancestors had lived there for 2,000 years. They lived in Turkestan. Otyrar is 2,000 years old while Almaty is 1000 years old. Now we say with reasoning that Taraz, Ispidzhab, and Kailyk are our cities. They are located on the Silk Road. They were known all over the world.

The author of the book calls the Silk Road the Internet of antiquity. It was like a cobweb which entangled almost all of Eurasia. Information about caravans, goods, and prices was spread very quickly. The scientist claims the information was available especially in the middle ages when all the merchants spoke the Kipchak language. Kipchak was the language of international relations in the 13th century.

ARNABAI NURZHANOV, SENIOR RESEARCH STAFF, INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY:

- All monuments of archeology are spiritual monuments. They are links to our history. We should know our roots, honor our ancestors and then we can rightly be called cultural people, a nation with culture. This is our spiritual food which is vital just like air and water.

The publication can be read in one breath. Bright illustrations make it truly alive. The monograph will be interesting to everyone like students, schoolchildren, scientists and housewives who love their homeland and want to know the history of their ancestors.

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